Dark Rides: A method for featuring inaccessible heritage sites; Applied on ancient Egyptian tombs


  • Hend Hamed Faculty of tourism and hotels, Helwan University
  • Rehab Hema Faculty of tourism and hotels




Dark rides, Heritage sites, Cultural tourism, Ancient Egyptian tombs, Accessibility.


This study addresses accessibility to heritage sites as a challenge confronting cultural tourism. It focuses on the heritage sites that cannot be modified to make it accessible since any change in them threats their value.With this regard, the paper suggests using dark rides for featuring the inaccessible heritage sites as an alternative for tourists to visit instead of the original site, merging between culture and recreation in one experience. The paper focuses on the ancient Egyptian tombs as one of these inaccessible heritage sites. Furthermore, the study explores the opinion of the mobility disabled individuals concerning this idea since they form a main potential tourist segment that will greatly benefit from this project.Finally, the study presents a hypothetical model for a dark ride featuring the burial chamber in Queen Nefertari’s tomb to emphasize how this project can be employed effectively in demonstrating inaccessible ancient Egyptian tombs.

Author Biographies

Hend Hamed, Faculty of tourism and hotels, Helwan University

Associate professor, tourism studies department.

Rehab Hema, Faculty of tourism and hotels

Professor, guiding department


Baron R (1995) On national myths in museums and theme parks: why people go to museums. Available at: http://www.studiolo.org/Email/ DISNEY01.htm (accessed 16 January 2013).

Brown V (2002) The concept of the Djed symbol. Available at: http://www.pyramidofman.com/Djed/ (accessed10 January 2014).

Canadian Heritage (2006) Cultural-Heritage Tourism: Review of existing market research definition of Culture/Heritage Tourism. Canada. Available at: http://www.pch.gc.ca/pc-ch/pubs/tourism/documents/2006-05/4_e.cfm (accessed 17 January 2013).

Darcy S (2010) Leisure constraints theory and disability travel, Sydney: NSW, Australia.

Darcy S and Dickson TJ (2009) A whole-of-life approach to tourism: The case for accessible tourism experiences. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management,16, pp.32–44. Epub ahead of print 16 March 2013. DOI: 10.1375/jhtm.16.

Davis R (2013) Back to the dark ages; A brief history of the modern dark ride attraction. Available at: www.laffinthedark.com/articles/ darkages.htm (accessed 08 February 2013).

Davenport G, Sparacino F and Pentland A (2000) Media in performance: interactive spaces for dance, theater, circus, and museum exhibits. IBM system journal 39, pp. 479-510.

Egypt Art Site (2014) List of Mythological deities. Available at: www.Egyptartsite.com (accessed 02 February 2014).

Egypt Sites (2014) Tomb of Queen Nefertari. Available at: www.egyptsites.wordpress.com/2009/02/06/tomb-of-queen-nefertari-qv66/ (Accessed 15 January 2014).

Hawass Z (2014) Site management and tourism. Available at: http://guardians.net/hawass/conservation2.htm (accessed 09 February 2014).

Hayes A (2010) Seize the opportunity: Social media customer research. In: Bernett.com. Available at: http://www.bernett.com/Bernett-Marketing-Research-Blog/ (accessed 30 December 2013).

Incredible Coasters (2014) Top 10 dark rides. Available at: www.incrediblecoasters.com/Top10DarkRides.html (accessed 06 February 2014).

Jump Jet (2013) Ghost train. Available at: http://www.jumpjet.info/RCT/Facilities/Gentle/Ghost/Ghost.html (accessed 16 March 2013).

King M (1991) The theme park experience; what museums can learn from Mickey Mouse. Available at: http://www.allbusiness.com/professional-scientific/scientific-research/264418-1.html (accessed 01 August 2013).

LaCross G (2014) Pretzel logic. Available at: www.laffinthedark.com/articles/pretzlogic/crescentpretzel.htm (accessed 01 January 2014).

Levine A (2013) dark rides. Available at:http://themeparks.about.com/od/darkrides/g/Dark-Rides.htm (accessed 22December 2013).

McCarthy H(2002) The Osiris Nefertari: A case study of decorum, gender and regeneration. Journal of The American Center in Egypt 39, pp.173-195

McDonald J (1995) The house of eternity. The Getty Conservation Institute. Available at: www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/pdf_publications/pdf/house_eternity4.pdf (accessed 09 February 2014).

Martin E (1999) Improving access to heritage buildings; A practical guide to meeting the needs of people with disabilities, Australian Council of National Trusts, Australian Heritage Commission Canberra .

Martin E and Gard’ner J (2008) Access for all to Heritage Places. Heritage Council of Victoria. Available at: www.heritage.vic.gov.au (accessed 22 June 2013).

Mirsiki P and Abfalter D (2004) Knowledge enhancement on site-guests' attitudes towards M-learning. In Frew A (eds.) Information and communication technologies in tourism , pp.592-600. New York: Springerwien.

National Assembly of State Art Agencies (2008) Cultural Tourism defined. Available at: http://www.nasaa-arts.org/artworks/cultour.shtml (accessed 12 January 2013).

Osiris Net (2014) Nefertari – QV66. Available at: www.osirisnet.net/tombes/pharaons/nefertari/e_nefertari_01.htm (accessed 04 February 2014).

Porter B and Moss R (1973) Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings. In: The Theban Necropolis. Part 2. Royal Tombs and Smaller Cemeteries. Second Edition .Oxford. pp. 762-765.

Reggio (2013) Ghost Train Cars GT2 2005. Available at: http://www.candsrides.biz/Sezione.jsp?idSezione=22 (accessed 03 April 2013).

Rogovoy S (1996) Take a walk on the Dark Ride. Available at: www.berkshireweb.com/rogovoy/interviews/darkride.html (accessed 18 May 2013).

Rudd E (2011) Dark ride project 2011. Williams College Museum of Art and the Clark Art Institute Available at: http://www.darkrideproject.org/ (accessed 26 January 2013).

Sexton T (2013) What is a dark ride. Available at: http://www.ehow.com/about_5031260_dark_ride.html (accessed 13 November 2013).

Sparacino F (2004a). Museum intelligence: using interactive technologies for effective communication and storytelling in Puccini Set Designer Exhibit. France: French Ministry of Culture and Communication.

Sparacino F (2004b) Scenographies of the past and museums of the future: From the Wunderkammer to body-driven interactive narrative spaces. USA: ACM Multimedia.

Swarthmore (2014) On Nefertari’s tomb. Available at: www.swarthmore.edu/Humanities/pschmid1/essays/Nefertari/nefertari.html (accessed 25 January 2014).

The European Network for Accessible Tourism (2008) Accessible tourism. Available at: http://www.accessibletourism.org (accessed 12 April 2013).

The National Centre for Culture and Recreation Statistics of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2001) Cultural tourism statistics. Australia: Cultural Ministers Council.

Theban Mapping Project (2014) Sites in The Valley of The Kings. Available at: www.thebanmappingproject.com/sites/ (accessed 28 January 2014).

Theme Park Builder 3D. (2013) Dark rides cars. Available at: http://www.tpb3d.net/showthread.php?tid=2389 (accessed 27 December 2013).

Tour Egypt (2014a) Kheker frieze. Available at: www.touregypt.net/ khekerfrieze.htm (accessed 05 February 2014).

Tour Egypt (2014b) Was- Scepter”. www.touregypt.net/ was-scepter. Htm (accessed 05 February 2014).

Tour Egypt (2014c) Uraeus. Available at: www.touregypt.net/ Uraeus. htm (accessed 05 February 2014).

Van Dijk J (2000) The Amarna Period and the Later New Kingdom’, in I. Shaw (ed.), The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford and New York, p. 293